From Wikihussain
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Turbah is a term used in Shi'ite culture. It literally means "soil," but in Shi'ite culture, it refers to the soil taken from around the grave of Imam Hussain. Some argue that it refers to the soil taken from around any sacred graves, including those of Imams, prophets, martyrs, and the righteous. However, in its common and exclusive sense, this term refers to the soil taken from around the grave of Imam Hussain, and as narrated by Imams, the terms “al-Tin” and “Tin al-Qabr” most probably are used in the same sense. Turbah is sometimes figuratively used to mean "grave," particularly to refer to the graves of the righteous. Abu Rayḥan Al-Biruni uses the term “Turbah al-Masouda” to refer to the grave of Imam Hussain. Turbah has always been sacred for the Shiites, representing their "motto." It has its own particular rules and rituals in Shiite hadiths and jurisprudence.

In Hadith[edit | edit source]

According to Hadith, Jesus, while prophesizing Imam Hussain’s martyrdom to his apostles, mentioned the reverence of turbah[1] Many hadiths in Shi’ite and Sunni sources suggest that the Prophet Muhammad was aware of Imam Hussain's martyrdom, and some hadiths maintain that Gabriel (another angel) brought the red turbah of Karbala to the Prophet, which was sorrowful for him. Due to some differences in these hadiths, particularly regarding the angel who brought the turbah, some have raised multiple possibilities regarding this event[2] These hadiths have been narrated by Companions of the Prophet Muhammed, including a number of his wives.[3] In some sources, the content of these hadiths is regarded as a miracle of the Prophet Muhammad.[4] According to the hadiths mostly narrated by Umm Salama, [5] the Prophet Muhammad gave the turbah brought to him by Gabriel to Umm Salama, and she placed it in a glass (her dress or scarf), then the Prophet Muhammad said that turbah was blood-red because of Imam Hussain's martyrdom on Ashura.[6] There are other reports designating that the turbah turns blood-red on Ashura[7] In Shi'ite sources, these hadiths are narrated by about ten narrators from the Prophet Muhammad, Imam al-Baqir, and Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq.[8] Some hadiths mention that the Prophet Muhammad gave some turbah to Umm Salama. According to one Hadith, that turbah was with her[9] until her death, and according to another hadith, it was kept by Imam al-Baqir.[10] Some prayers also assert that Gabriel brought turbah to the Prophet Muhammad.[11] In some hadiths, Imam Ali narrates about Imam Hussain’s turbah. For instance, while crossing Karbala in the Battle of Siffin, Imam Ali narrated the Prophet Muhammad's Hadith regarding the importance of turbah to his companions.[12] Apparently, this Hadith was narrated twice in Karbala during Imam Ali's journey to Siffin and on his return.[13] Another hadith mentions Imam Ali's knowledge of the turbah of Imam Hussain's martyrdom.[14] According to a hadith, while crossing Karbala, Imam Ali wept and mentioned the Ashura incident and emphasized the dignity of that place.[15]

Upon arriving in Karbala, Imam Hussain also narrated the Hadith of Umm Salama about turbah.[16] According to narrations, Umm Salama narrated this Hadith to Imam Hussain as he moved from Medina.[17]

Other Infallible Imams also spoke of turbah, praising and emphasizing its superiority and referring to it as “mubaraka," "tahira," and "meskat Mubarak".[18] While picking up turbah, Imam Reza smelled it and wept.[19] Some hadiths mention the angels’ affection for turbah.[20]

In Shi’ite Culture[edit | edit source]

There are many sources on turbah in Hadith and jurisprudential texts, according to which it can heal diseases, provided that one believes in Imam Hussain or in turbah.[21]Some hadiths declare that it is crucial how turbah is picked or eaten.[22] The Imami jurists[23] have unanimously confirmed its healing capability and have some works in this regard. There are many reports by authentic narrators regarding the effect of turbah.[24] Muslims have long sought healing from the turbah of Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib, the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, and other martyrs and the righteous.[25] The tradition of Al-Istishfa' by Imam Hussain's turbah has become so widespread in a Shi'ite culture that turbah has been used as an entry in Persian dictionaries.[26]

Another function of turbah is its ability to free one from fear, and some hadiths suggest carrying it.[27] Imam Reza placed some turbah in every packaging, like cloth[28] for its safety.[29] In addition, carrying turbah is a blessing.[30] Some hadiths suggest feeding turbah to infants, and jurists consider it mustahabb[31] (recommended), recommending it as a gift[32]

The Imami jurists unanimously agree that it is mustahabb to place some turbah in the grave to avoid the dead's punishment of the grave,[33] yet there are disagreements about the manner of so doing.[34] Some jurists believe that the reason for this mustahabb action is merely the sacredness of turbah,[35] which has been stated in Hadith.[36] The Imami jurists also unanimously agree that it is mustahabb to write shahada (testimony) sentences and also Imams' names on the shroud, but there are some disagreements among the jurists about how to write that.[37]

Turbah has other functions, including enhancement of rizq (provision), beneficial knowledge, dignity, alleviation of poverty, and the appearance of any virtue and honor.[38] It is argued that that the functions of turbah result from eating or carrying it.

According to hadiths and jurisprudence books, turbah is the best thing to put one's forehead on in prostration to Allah.[39] Imam al-Sadiq kept some of Imam Hussain's turbah in a yellow silk cloth, and while praying, he would put some of it on his sajjada (prayer mat) for prostration.[40] According to hadiths and jurisprudence books, performing prostration on turbah and reciting tasbih with a misbaha made of the turbah causes one to have a lenient heart (riqqat al-qalb).[41] The turbah made from the soil of Karbala -as it is used today for prostration- appeared in historical texts for the first time in a letter from Imam al-Mahdi in 921 A.D. in response to the questions of Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Ja'far al-Himyari. It was referred to as “Lawh Min Tin al-qabr” (a tablet from the soil of the grave) in this letter. Such questions about the virtues of turba at that time indicate that using turba mohr was not common. This Hadith and other hadiths emphasize that it is mustahabb to pray with tasbih made of the turbah.[42] Shahid Awwal considers these hadiths as frequently cited.[43] According to a narration from Imam al-Sadiq, Fatima's tasbih was first made of a woolen thread on which knots were tied to aid in counting. When Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib was martyred in the battle of Uhud, she made a tasbih using beads made from the soil of his grave. After the martyrdom of Imam Hussain, the use of soil from his grave was initiated. According to a report from Imam al-Sadiq, the tasbihs made from the soil of Imam Hussain’s grave are preferred over those made from the soil of Hamza’s grave. This narration indicates that, at least until Imam al-Sadiq's era, misbaha made from the soil of Hamza was common.[44] Some narrations emphasize carrying the misbaha made from the soil of Imam Hussain's grave, even without praying[45], but apparently, like mohr, the use of turbah misbaha was not widespread until 920 A.D. (al-Himyari's letter).

In making mohr and misbaha, it is essential to bake turbah for better durability, and this in itself has led to a discussion regarding prostration on baked turbah; some jurists consider it allowed, while others regard it as makruh (abominable).[46] In the 16th century A.D., after a scientist banned prostration on baked turbah[47], it became a controversial debate, so that Al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki wrote a thesis proving the authorization of prostration on baked turbah in 1526 AD. Some consider this thesis as a refutation of Fazel Qatifi, whose arguments with Al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki are well-known.[48]

Due to its sanctity, there are specific jurisprudential rulings regarding turbah. For instance, it is forbidden to make the soil najis, and once done, the removal of Al-Najasa is obligatory, even making the soil najis may be a sign of disbelief.[49] Moreover, the soil buried with the body of a deceased person should be placed in such a way that it is not disrespected.[50] Dishonoring turbah brings about bitter earthly consequences.[51] Eating the soil for the sake of healing is permissible [52] while consuming normal soil is forbidden. In some hadiths and jurists' fatawa, breaking fast with turbah is permissible, though some jurists do not consider this true.[53] The amount of soil permissible to eat for the purpose of healing is limited to a maximum size of a chickpea[54]

In some narrations and jurists' fatawa, the use of Armenian bole for healing is permissible, yet turbah is superior. Shi'ist jurists have delineated the differences between these two rules.[55] According to some narrations, it is permissible to consume the soil of the graves of other Imams, yet this is not accepted by some jurists and is consistent with some other hadiths[56] In Fuqaha's view, trading turbah is permitted[57] but it is forbidden in some narrations.[58]

According to different narrations, the area suitable for collecting the soil could be twenty cubits, twenty-five cubits, seventy cubits, one mile, four miles, ten miles, one league, or five leagues from the grave of Imam Hussain. Although any of these is acceptable according to Fuqaha, it is understood that the closer the soil is from the grave, the greater its magnificence and effects.[59]

There are many rituals and prayers for collecting, consuming, and carrying the turbah. These include having a ghusl, reciting some verses of the Qur'an, kissing it, and rubbing it on the eyes.[60] According to Fuqaha, although the effect of the soil does not depend on these rituals and prayers, performing them may increase the speed and power of the effect.[61]

Hadiths about turbah are mentioned in many sources,[62] including Ahmad Sultan Mostafavi Cheshti's The Prostration of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) on Turbah, which is in Urdu.[63]

Some unpublished works on turbah are as follows: Sharafa al-Turbah by Muhammad bin Bakran Razi[64], Sharafa al-Turbah by Abolmafazl Sheibani[65] and Lam'at Ma'ani in Persian in Proving the Virtue of Prostration on Turbah by Seyyed Ali Razavi Lahori.[66][67]

Prostrating on Karbala’s Soil[edit | edit source]

When the Shias use Karbala’s soil to prostrate upon, they do not claim that doing so is absolutely obligatory, nor do they claim that it is an obligation derived from the Sharia or the creed, nor is it one of the sect's obligation, nor does anyone among them, from the very first day, distinguish between it and others collected from the earth's soil, when they regard prostrating upon it as permissible. To Shias, such a turba is mandated by reason and is highly commendable, that's all. It is opting for the best of what one should prostrate upon when one consults his reason and logic and common sense alone, as you have already been told above. When travelling to sacred sites, many Shias take with them any such thing other than Karbala's turba upon which the prostration is valid such as a pure and clean rug woven of palm leaves they are confident to be clean, or anything like that upon which they prostrate when they perform their prayers.

The superiority of some lands over other lands in the Qur’an[edit | edit source]

It can be deduced from several verses of the Holy Qur'an that certain lands have been blessed and have special distinctions over other lands. Allah, the Exalted, says:

(إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنّاسِ لَلَّذِي بِبَکَّةَ مُبارَکاً وَهُديً لِلْعالَمِينَ )

"Most surely, the first house appointed for men is the one at Bekka, blessed and a guidance for the nations.”[68]

And He also says,

( وَقُلْ رَبِّ أَنْزِلْنِي مُنْزَلاً مُبارَکاً وَأَنْتَ خَيْرُ اَلمُنْزِلِينَ )

"And say: O my Lord! Cause me to disembark a blessed alighting, and Thou art the best to cause to alight."[69]

Another Qur’anic verse says,

( وَنَجَّيْناهُ وَلُوطاً إِلى الأَرْضِ الَّتِي بارَکْنا فِيها لِلْعالَمِينَ )

“And We delivered him as well as Lut (removing them) to the land which We had blessed for all people.”[70]

Talking about the Prophet Moses (as), the Holy Qur’an says,

( إِذْ ناداهُ رَبُّهُ بِالْوادِ المُقَدَّسِ طُوَي )

“When his Lord called upon him in the holy valley, twice.”[71]

And likewise, while addressing him, the Holy Qur’an says,

( فَاخْلَع نَعْلَيْكَ إِنَّكَ بِالْوادِ المُقَدَّسِ طُوَي )

"Therefore, put off your shoes; surely you are in the sacred valley, Tuwa.”[72]

In a story about Sulayman, the Holy Qur’an says,

( وَلِسُلَيْمانَ الرِّيْحَ عاصِفَةً تَجْرِي بِأَمْرِهِ إِلى الأَرْضِ الَّتِي بارَكْنا فِيها ... )

“And We made subservient to Sulaiman the wind blowing violent, pursuing its course by his command to the land which We had blessed.”[73]

About the Holy Prophet of Islam, the Holy Qur’an says,

( سُبْحانَ الَّذِي أَسْري بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلاً مِنَ المَسْجِدِ الحَرامِ إِلى المَسْجِدِ الأَقْصي الَّذِي بارَکْنا حَولَهُ ... )

"Glory be to Him who made His servant go on a night from the Sacred Mosque to the Remote Mosque of which We have blessed the precincts.”[74]

The superiority of some lands over others in hadiths[edit | edit source]

From the viewpoint of both Sunni and Shia hadiths, it can be inferred that certain parts of the earth, and likewise the people dwelling therein, are endowed with qualities of either wickedness or prosperity and salvation:

1. On his own chain of transmission, Bukhari recounts that Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar said, “When the Holy Prophet was passing through the land of Thamud, he said, 'Do not enter lands whose owners have committed oppression against themselves so that you may not be afflicted with suffering as they were unless you pass through while crying.' Then, the Prophet of Allah covered his blessed head and passed through that valley quickly."[75]

2. Bukhari also narrates, “Ali disliked performing his prayers in the valley of Babylon.”[76]

3. Halabi recounts, “The consensus of the Islamic community [ummah] is that this place (Medina), which contains the body of the Holy Prophet, is the best part of the land on earth. It is even higher than the Ka‘bah (Mecca). Some say it is the most excellent part of the earth and is even higher than the Throne [Arsh] of Allah.”[77]

4. In a discussion about why Medina is higher than all the other parts of the earth, Samhudi Shafi‘i says, “The second reason is this: this land consists of parts of the earth that are considered by consensus of the Islamic community [ummah] to possess the holy body of Allah’s Prophet.”[78]

5. Likewise, it is narrated that after the death and burial of the Holy Prophet, people used to come and carry some soil from his grave to seek divine favors from it. A’ishah got worried that the soil would get finished and hence reveal the body of the Holy Prophet. Therefore, she ordered that a wall should be raised around the Prophet’s grave.[79]

The excellence and superiority of the soil of Karbala[edit | edit source]

Clay from Karbala is one of the soils on earth which Allah, the Exalted, has blessed for certain reasons, and one of the reasons is that this piece of the earth is where the pure and noble body of the Master of Martyrs, Imam al-Hussain, rests.

While explaining the hidden meaning of prostrating on soil from Karbala, Allamah Amini says, “This issue is based on two basic principles:

a. That the Imamate Shias try to always have a clean cake of natural earth in their possession so that they may prostrate on it.

b.; some graves are superior to others; therefore, special blessings are derived from these tombs. For this reason, the precincts of the Ka‘bah and other holy shrines have special religious laws.

One of the lands that have gained superiority over other lands and have become a source of blessings and favours is Karbala, where the body of the Doyen of Martyrs, Imam al-Hussain, lies. Karbala is that same holy piece of land from which Imam Ali, long before the martyrdom of Imam al-Hussain, had picked up a handful of clay. He smelled the soil and cried so much that the soil got wet with the tears flowing from his eyes."

Then, he said, “Seventy thousand people will be raised from this land. They will enter heaven without their actions of this world being accounted.”[80]

Professor Abbas Mahmud Aqqad]], Egyptian author, says the following about the land of Karbala,

"The land of Karbala is a holy place where Muslims go for pilgrimage to learn lessons from the example of Imam al-Hussain. Those who are not Muslims, they come here as tourists to see and visit the holy land.

However, in order for us to do justice to this land, we have to make it a place of pilgrimage for all inhabitants of the earth so that everyone might gain his portion of virtue which this land has to offer, regardless of what they believe in, because we do not have any piece of land in living memory that possesses as much virtue nor as many benefits as Karbala. The main reason is that this land called Karbala is the resting place of al-Hussain, and thus is connected and joined to him.”[81]

Shaykh Muhammad Hussain Al Kashif al-Ghita’, while explaining why it is preferable and desirable to prostrate on soil from Karbala, said, “One of the high motives and aims of preferring to prostrate on soil from Karbala is that when the person who is praying puts his forehead on this soil, he remembers the sacrifices that were made by Imam al-Hussain and the love which he displayed when he was in the presence of Allah.

The man praying on the soil from Karbala becomes overwhelmed by such thoughts as to how a man can sacrifice as Imam al-Hussain did for his beliefs and convictions and stand up against the oppressors!

Because prostration is the best posture where a servant of Allah finds himself in the presence of Allah, it is befitting that while in this state; he remembers holy and pure souls, souls who sacrificed their lives in the way of their Beloved, Allah. At this moment, and with such thoughts, man acquires a condition of humility and modesty. Everything that is in this world will then appear low and abject before him.

With such thoughts, man's soul acquires a solid mystical and spiritual attachment to Allah, like the station of conviction attained by Imam al-Hussain and his companions. This is the benefit of betaking a solid connection with Imam al-Hussain using prostrating on soil from Karbala.

For this reason, we read in narrations about Imam al-Hussain that his clay (the soil of Karbala) removes the seven veils [hijab]. Therefore, in reality, prostration on the soil of Karbala is a secret for ascending from the earthly domain towards the Lord of lords…"[82]

Abd al-Razzaq Muqarram writes, “One of the methods that the Ahl al-Bayt have employed to manifest the oppression which Imam al-Hussain suffered is prostrating on soil from Karbala. This action has lots of hidden meanings.

The most important secret is that every time man’s eyes fall on the soil of Karbala as he performs his five daily prayers, he is reminded about Imam al-Hussain and his companions and the sacrifices they made. It is clear that remembering such role models will produce remarkable psychological and spiritual effects in man’s soul…”[83]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. See ibn Babawayh, 1984, Vol. 2, pp. 531-532; Ibid, 1983, session 87, pp. 598-599; Sadri, p. 22.
  2. See Abdullah Bahrani, Vol. 17, pp. 124-131; Amini, p. 53-129; Sadri, p. 51.
  3. See ibn Hanbal, Vol. 11, pp. 207-208; Al-Qadi al-Nu'man, Vol. 3, pp. 134-135; Mufid, 1992 (a), Vol. 2, p. 129; Alavi Shajari, p. 90-92; Toosi, 1993, p.314; Ibn Shahr Ashub, Vol. 4, p. 63; Sadri, p. 52; Movahed Abtahi Isfahani, Vol. 4, pp. 150-151, 153, 218-253, 262-264.
  4. See Abu Nu`aym, p. 553; Bayhaqi, Vol. 6, pp. 468-470.
  5. See Movahed Abtahi Isfahani, Vol. 4, pp. 218-242.
  6. See Abū Yaʿlā al-Mawṣilī, Vol. 6, pp. 129-130; Khusaibi, pp. 202-203; Ibn Qulawayh, pp. 59-61; Tabarani, Vol. 3, p. 108; ibn Shajari, Vol. 2, p. 82; ibn Babawayh, 1983, session 29, pp. 139-140; Hakim al-Nishapuri, Vol. 5, p. 567.
  7. Maysami Iraqi, p. 542; Dastghaib, pp. 123-124.
  8. See Ibn Qulawayh, Ibid; Toosi, 1993, pp. 314-318; Fadhl Tabresi, Vol. 1, 428.
  9. See Ibn Qulawayh, p. 60.
  10. See Toosi, 1993, p. 316.
  11. See Ibn Qulawayh, pp. 280, 282, 284- 285; Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, Vol. 98, pp. 118, 129.
  12. See Nasr bin Mozahim, p. 140; Ibn Sa'ad, pp. 48- 49; Ibn Hanbal, Vol. 1, p. 446; Abū Yaʿlā al-Mawṣilī, Vol. 1, p. 298; Ibn Asakir, p. 23- 234.
  13. Movahed Abtahi Esfahani, Vol. 4, pp. 365- 366.
  14. See Ibn Sa'ad, p. 48; Ibn Qulawayh, p. 72.
  15. See Hemayri, p. 26; Ibn Qulawayh, p. 269- 270.
  16. See Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, p. 225.
  17. Khasibi, p. 203; Masudi, p. 165; Ibn Hamza, 1991, pp. 330- 331; Movahed Abtahi Esfahani, Vol. 4, pp. 218- 221.
  18. See Ibn Qulawayh, pp. 267- 268, 270- 271; Mufid, 1992 (b), p. 23; Asfari, pp. 16- 17; Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, Vol. 98, pp. 128- 132.
  19. See Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, Vol. 98, p. 131.
  20. See Ibn Qulawayh, p. 68; Mufid, 1992 (b), p. 151; Sadri, p. 49.
  21. See Kulayni, Vol. 4, p, 588; Alavi Shajari, p. 91; Toosi, 1990, pp. 732,734; Ibn Mashhadi, pp. 361, 363; Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, Vol. 98, pp. 118 onward.
  22. See Barqi, p. 500; Kulayni, Vol. 4, p. 243, Ibn Babawayh, 1966, p. 410; Toosi, 1993, p. 317; Ibid, 1990, p. 826.
  23. Shahid Awal, 1993, Vol. 2, p. 25.
  24. See Toosi, 1993, pp. 319-320; Maysami Iraqi, p. 542, Qomi, Vol. 2, p. 695; Araji Faham, Vol. 2, pp. 204- 206; Sadri, pp. 109- 110, 115- 116.
  25. Samhoodi, Vol. 1, pp. 69- 116, Vol. 2, p. 544; Araji Faham, Vol. 2, p. 179- 182.
  26. For instance see Dehkhoda, Da'i al-Islam; Shaad, the entry; for further information regarding healing see Sobhani, p. 184, Alavi, p. 331- 332.
  27. See Ibn Qulawayh, pp. 278- 280; Toosi, 1980, Vol. 6, p. 75; Ibid, 1993, p. 318.
  28. Ibn Qulawayh, p. 278.
  29. Kalbasi, p. 130.
  30. See Ibn Qulawayh, p. 278; Najafi, Vol. 18, p. 162.
  31. See Kulayni, Vol. 6, p. 24; Mufid, 1989, p. 521; Sallār al-Daylamī, p. 156; Ibn Braj, Vol. 2, p. 259; Ibn Ḥamzah, 1978, p. 372; Yusuf al-Bahrani, Vol. 7, p. 131.
  32. Shahid Awal, 1993, Vol. 2, p. 26.
  33. See Toosi, 1986- 1996, Vol. 1, p. 706, Muhaqqiq al-Hilli, 1985, Vol. 1, pp. 299- 300.
  34. See Al-fiqh al-Mansub lil'-Imam al-Reza (AS), p. 184; Toosi, 1990, p. 20; Ibid, 1979, p. 250; Ibn Idris Helli, Vol. 1, p. 165; Muhaqqiq al-Hilli, 1985, Vol. 1, p. 301; Allamah al-Hill, 1993, Vol. 2, pp. 94- 95; Shahid Awal, 1998, Vol. 23, p. 21.
  35. See Shahid Awal, Ibid; Mousavi Ameli, Vol. 2, p. 139.
  36. See Toosi, 1980, Vol. 6, p. 76; Ibid, 1990, p. 735; Ahmad Tabarsi, Vol. 2, p. 582; Yusuf al-Bahrani, Vol. 4, p. 112; Al-Hurr al-Amili, Vol. 3, p. 30; Allamah al-Hilli, 1993, Vol. 2, p. 95; Shahid Awal, 1998, Vol. 2, p. 21.
  37. See Mufid, 1989, p. 78; Toosi, 1980, Vol. 1, p. 309; Ibid, 1990, p. 18; Ibn Idris Helli, Vol. 1, p. 162; Fazil Hindi, Vol. 2, p. 298; Najafi, , Vol. 4, p. 231.
  38. See Ibn Qulawayh, pp. 277, 282- 285; Ibn Bastam, p. 52; Nouri, 1986- 1987, Vol. 8, p. 237; Kalbasi, p. 109; Farhad Mirza Qajar, p. 6.
  39. Ibn Babawayh, 1993, Vol. 1 p. 268; Shahid Awal, 1993, Vol. 2, p. 26; Yusuf al-Bahrani, Vol. 7, p. 260; Naraghi, Vol. 5, p. 266.
  40. See Toosi, 1990, p. 733; Daylamī, Vol. 1 p. 115; Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, Vol. 82, p. 153; Āl Kāshif al-Ghitā, p. 39.
  41. Mohammad Taqi Majlesi, Vol. 2, p. 177.
  42. See Mufid, 1992 (b), pp. 150- 151; Hasan Tabresi, p. 281; Ibn Mashhadi, pp. 366- 368; Al-Hurr al-Amili, Vol. 6, p. 455- 456; Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, Vol. 82, pp. 333, 340.
  43. 1993, Vol. 2, p. 26.
  44. See Samhoodi, Vol. 1, p. 116.
  45. See Toosi, 1990, p. 735; Ibid, 1980, Vol. 6, pp. 75- 76; Ahmad Tabresi, Vol. 2, p. 583, see Mufid, 1992 (b), p. 152.
  46. See Sallār al-Daylamī, Ibid; Ibn Ḥamzah, 1978, p. 89; Shahid Awal, 1993, Vol. 2, p. 26; Al-Shahid al-Thani, 1999, p. 211; Yusuf al-Bahrani, Vol. 7, pp. 260- 261; Najafi, Vol. 8, p. 414.
  47. See Al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki, Vol. 2, p. 91.
  48. See Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, Vol. 105, p. 79, Amin, Vol. 8, p. 210; Agha Bozorg Tehrani, Vol. 12, pp. 148- 149.
  49. Allamah al-Hilli, 1992, Vol. 1, p. 267; Ibid, 1993, Vol. 1, p. 127; Najafi, Vol. 8, p. 335; Āl Kāshif al-Ghitā, p. 175; Sabzavari, p. 18.
  50. See Tabatabei Yazdi, Vol. 1, p. 315; Mas'alat 9; Hakim, Vol. 4, p. 199.
  51. See Toosi, 1993, p. 320; Nouri, 1958, Vol. 2, p. 283.
  52. Kulayni, Vol. 6, pp. 265- 266, 378; Ibn Braj, Vol. 2, p. 433; Ibn Ḥamzah, p. 433; Muhaqqiq al-Hilli, 1987, Vol. 3, p. 176; Naraghi, Vol. 15, p. 162; Kalbasi, pp. 28- 30.
  53. Al-Fiqh al-Mansub lil'Imam al-Reza, p. 210; Ibn Shu’bah, p. 488; Ibn Babawayh, 1993, Vol. 2, p. 174; Mufid, 1992 (c), p. 31; Ibn Tawus, Iqbal, p.281; Shahid Awal, 1991, p. 203; Ibid, 1998, Vol. 4, pp. 175- 176; Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, Vol. 57, pp. 158- 161.
  54. Kulayni, Vol. 6, p. 378; Ibn Braj, Vol. 2, pp. 429- 430; Ibn Idris Helli, Vol. 1, p. 318, Muhaqqiq al-Hilli, 1987, Ibid; Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, Vol. 57, pp. 161- 162; Kalbasi, pp. 45- 47.
  55. See Toosi, 1990, p. 732; Muhaqqiq al-Hilli, 1987, Ibid; Ibn Fahd al-Hilli ,Vol. 4, p. 221; Al-Shahid al-Thani, 1992- 1998, Vol. 12, p. 69.
  56. See Ibn Qulawayh, pp. 280- 218; Ibn Babawayh, 1984, Vol. 1, p. 104; Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, Vol. 57, p. 156.
  57. Shahid Awal, 1993, Vol. 2, p. 26; Ibn Fahd al-Hilli, Ibid; Āl Kāshif al-Ghitā, p. 376.
  58. See Ibn Qulawayh, p. 286.
  59. Toosi, 1980, Vol. 6, pp. 71- 72; Ibid, 1990, pp. 731- 732; Ibn Fahd al-Hilli, Vol. 4 p. 220; Al-Shahid al-Thani, 1982, Vol. 7, p. 327; Moghadas Ardebili, Vol. 2, p. 313; Mohammad Taqi Majlesi, Vol. 5 pp. 370- 371; Naraghi, Vol. 15, p. 165- 167.
  60. See Ibn Qulawayh, Chapter, 93- 94; Toosi, 1993, p. 318, Ibn Tawus, Al'-aman, P. 47; Ibid, Falah al-saayil, pp. 62, 224- 225; Ibn Mashhadi, pp. 363- 366.
  61. See Moghadas Ardebili, Vol. 1, p. 236.
  62. See Ibn Qulawayh, Chapters, 17, 91- 95, Independent works have also been written on Turbah, for instance Risalat al-Sujud ealaa al-turbah al-Mshwy by Al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki, al'-Ard al-turbah al-Husayniyah by Muhammad Hussein Al Kashef Al-Ghetaa, al-Aistishfa' bi-al-turbah al-Shryft al-Husayniyah by Aboumalali Kalbasi, Soil of Heaven by Mehdi Sadri, Prostration- place in the virtue of prostrating on Turbah by Seyyed Mohammad Emrouhi Hindi see Agha Bozorg Tehrani, Vol. 12, p. 147.
  63. See Ibid.
  64. See Najashi, p. 394; Agha Bozorg Tehrani, Vol. 14, p. 180
  65. See Najashi, p. 396; Agha Bozorg Tehrani, p. 180
  66. See Agha Bozorg Tehrani, Vol. 18, p. 354, ShafaName Mathnavi on the effect of Imam Husayn turbah, composed by Taeb Tabriz
  67. Ibid., Vol. 19, p. 84
  68. Surat Al ‘Imran 3:96.
  69. Surat al-Mu’minun 23:29.
  70. Surat al-Anbiya’ 21:71.
  71. Surat al-Nazi‘at 79:16.
  72. Surat Ta Ha 20:12.
  73. Surat al-Anbiya’ 21:81.
  74. Surat al-Isra’ (or Bani Isra’il) 17:1.
  75. Sahih Bukhari, vol. 6, p. 7, Kitab al-Maghazi.
  76. Ibid., vol. 1, p. 90; Kitab al-Salat.
  77. Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, vol. 3, p. 306.
  78. Wafa’ al-Wafa’, vol. 1, p. 52.
  79. Ibid., vol. 1, p. 385.
  80. Al-Mu‘jam al-Kabir, vol. 3, p. 111, hadith 2825.
  81. Abu al-Shuhada, p. 145.
  82. Al-Ard wa al-Turbat al-Husayniyyah, pp. 32-33.
  83. Maqtal al-Husayn (as), pp. 103-104.

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

1. Agha Bozorg Tehrani

2. Muhammad Hussein Al Kashef Al-Ghetaa, Al-Ardh and al-Turbah al-Hussainiah, Qom, 1995.

3. Ibn Idris Helli, Al-Saraer Al-Hawi Al-Tahrir al-Fattawi, Qom, 1989-1990.

4. Ibn Babawayh, Al-Amali, Tehran, 1983.

5. Ibid, Elal Al-Sharaye', Najaf, 1966, Offset Printing, Qom (Bita Publications).

6. Ibid, Oyoun Akhbar Al-Ridha, Published by Mehdi Lajevardi, Qom, 1984.

7. Ibid, Man La Yahduruhu al-Faqih, Published by Ali Akbar Ghaffari, Qom, 1993.

8. Ibid, Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ni'ma, Published by Ali Akbar Ghaffari, Qom, 1984.

9. Ibn Boraj, Al-Mohzab, Qom, 1985.

10. Ibn Bastam (Hussein bin Bastam) and Ibn Bastam (Abdullah bin Bastam), Tib al-A'emah, Najaf, 1965, Offset Printing, Qom, 1984.

11. Ibn Hamza, Al-Thāqib fi l-manāqib, Published by Nabil Reza Alavan, Qom, 1991.

12. Ibid, Alwasilah Ila Neil Alfadhilah, Published by Abdul Azim Boka, Najaf, 1979.

13. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Published by Ahmed Mohammed Shaker, Cairo, 1995.

14. Ibn Sa'd, Tarjomat al-Imam al-Hussain wa Maqtalah, Min al-Qism Qair al-Matbu'a Min Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, Published by Abdulaziz Tabatabai, Qom, 1994.

15. Ibn Shajari, Al-Amali wa Hi al-Shahirah bel-Amali al-Khamisia, Beirut, 1983.

16. Ibn Shu’bah, Tuḥaf al-ʿUqūl an ʾAl al-Rasūl, Published by Ali Akbar Ghaffari, Tehran, 1997.

17. Ibn Shahr Ashub, Manaqib of Ale Abi Talib, Published by Youssef Baqa'i, Beirut, 1991.

18. Ibn Tawus, Al-Iqbāl bil-Amāl al-Hasanat, Published by Fazlollah Noori, Tehran, 1894, Offset Printing, 1988.

19. Ibid, Amān Min Akhṭār al-Asfār wa-al-Azmān, Qom, 1988.

20. Ibid, Falah al-Sael, Beirut: al-Dar al-Islamiyah, (Bita).

21. Ibn Asakir, Tarjomat Reyhanat Rasul Allah al-Imam al-Mafdiyyah fi Sabil Allah al-Hussain ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) Min Tarikh Madinat al-Damishq, Beirut, 1978.

22. Ibn Fahad Hilli, Al-Mahzab al-Bar'a fi Sharh al-Mukhtasr al-Nafi'a, Qom, 1986-1992.

23. Ibn Qulawayh, Kamil al-Ziyarat, Published by Abdul Hussein Amini, Najaf, 1937.

24. Ibn Mashhadi, Al-Mazar al-Kabir, Published by Javad Qayyumi Esfahani, Qom, 1998.

25. Ibn Manzur,

26. Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, al-Athār al-Bāqiyah

27. Ahmad ibn Abdullah Abu Nu`aym, Dala'il al-Nubuwwah, Published by Muḥammad Rawwās Qalʻahʹjī and Abdulbar Abbas, Beirut, 1991.

28. Abū Yaʿlā al-Mawṣilī, Musnad, Published by Hossein Salim Assad, Beirut, 1989-1991.

29. Mohammad Reza A'raji Fahham, Aḥsan al-jazā' fī Iqāmat al-'Azā' 'alá Sayyid al-shuhadā, Vol. 2, Qom, 1980.

30. Amin

31. Abdul Hussein Amini, Siratana wa Sonatana, Beirut, 1992.

32. Abdullah bin Nurullah Allah Bahrani, Awalim al-Ulum wa al-Ma'arif wa al-Ahwal min al-Ayat wa al-'Akhbar wa al-'Aqwal, Vol. 17, Qom, 1986.

33. Yousef Bin Ahmad Bahrani, al-Hadayiq al-Nadhirat fi Ahkam al-Etrat al-Tahira, Qom, 1984-1988, Ahmad bin Muhammad al-Barqi, Kitab al-Mahasin, Published by Mohadith Armawi, Qom, (1952).

34. Aḥmad ibn Ḥusayn al-Bayhaqi, Dala'il al-Nubuwwah, Published by Abdul Mo'ata Qalʻahʹjī, Beirut, 1985.

35. Muhammad ibn al-Hakim al-Nishapuri, Al-Mustadrak Alaa al-Sahihain, Beirut, 1998.

36. Hadi Haeri Khorasani, Mu'jezat wa Keramat A'imma al-Athar (PBUT), Qom, 1996.

37. Al-Hurr al-Amili

38. Mohsen Hakim, Mustamsek al-Orwat al-Wothqa, Najaf, 1968, Offset Printing in Beirut, (Bita Publications).

39. Abdullah bin Ja'far al-Himyari, Qurb al-Isnad, Qom, 1992.

40. Hossein bin Ḥamdān al-Khaṣībī, Al-Hidaya al-Kubra, Beirut, 1986.

41. Mohammad Ali Daei al-Islam, System Culture, Lithography in Hyderabad Deccan, 1926- 1939, Offset Printing in Tehran, 1983-1985.

42. Abdul-Hussein Dastghaib, Fantastic Stories, Tehran, 1983.

43. Dehkhoda

44. Hussein bin Mohammad Daylamī, Irshad al-Qulub, Beirut, 1978.

45. Ja'far Sobhani, “Interview with Ayatollah Ja'far Sobhani”, Hawza, Issues 43-44, (April-July 1991).

46. Mohammad Baqir Sabzevari, Dhakhirat al-Maad fi Sharh al-Irshad, Lithography in Tehran, 1856-1857, Offset Printing in Qom, (Bita Publications).

47. Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-Khawas, Beirut, 1981.

48. Ḥamza bin Sallār al-Daylamī, Al-Marasim al-Alawiyya fi Ahkam al-Nabawiyyah, Published by Mohsen Hosseini Amini, Beirut, 1994.

49. Ali bin Abdullah Samhudi, Wafa' al-Wafa bil-Akhbar Dar al-Mustafa, Published by Mohammed Mohiuddin Abdul Hamid, Beirut, 1984.

50. Mohammed Padishah bin Ghulam Mohiuddin Shaad, Annendraj: Comprehensive Persian Dictionary, Published by Mohammad Dabir Siaqi, Tehran 1984.

51. Muhammad bin Makki Shahid Awwal, al-Bayan, Published by Mohammad Hassoun, Qom, 1991.

52. Ibid, al-Durus al-Shareyah fi Fiqh al-Imāmīyya, Qom, 1993.

53. Ibid, Dhikr al-Shiat fi Ahkam al-Sharia, Qom, 1998.

54. Zayn al-Din bin Ali Shahid Sani, ar-Rawda-l-Bahiyah fi Sharh Allam'a-d-Dimashqiya, Mohammed Klantar, Beirut, 1983

55. Ibid, al-Fawayid al-Maliyya li-Sharh al-Risalat al-Nafliyya, Qom, 1999.

56. Ibid, Masalik al-Afham Ila Tanqih Shara'i' al-Islam, Qom, 1992-1998.

57. Mehdi Sadri, Paradise Soil, Qom, 1998.

58. Ali Tabatabaei, Riyad al-Masail, Qom, 1991-1999.

59. Mohammad Kazem bin Abdul Azim Tabataba'i Yazdi, Urwa Al Wuthqa, Tehran, 1979.

60. Sulaymān ibn Ahmad al-Ṭabarānī, Al-Mu'jam al-Kabir, Published by Hamdi Abdul Majid Salafi, Offset Printing in Beirut, 1983-198?.

61. Ahmad bin Ali Tabarsi, Al-Ihtijaj, Published by Ebrahim Bahadori and Mohammad Hadi, Qom, 1992.

62. Hassan bin Fazl Tabarsi, Makarim al-Akhlaq, Published by Mohammad Hossein A'lami, Beirut, 1972.

63. Fadhl ibn Hasan Tabresi, Ilam al-Wara bi-Alam al-Huda, Qom, 1996.

64. Mohammad bin Hassan Tusi, Al-Iqtisad al-Hadi ila Al-Irshad, Tehran, 1979.

65. Ibid, al-Amali, Qom, 1993.

66. Ibid, Tahdhib al-Ahkam, Published by Hassan Mousavi Khersan, Beirut, 1981.

67. Ibid, Al-Khilaf, Qom, 1986- 1996.

68. Ibid, Misbah al-Mutahajjid, Beirut, 1991.

69. Abu Sa'id Ebad Asfari, Asl, in Usul al-Setat Ashar, Qom, 1984.

70. Hasan ibn Yusuf al-Allamah al-Hilli, Tadhkirat al-Fuqaha', Vol. 1-2, Qom, 1993.

71. Ibid, Mukhtalaf al-Shi'a, Vol. 1, Qom, 1992.

72. Javad Alavi, “Ayatollah Boroujerdi in Boroujerd”, Hawza, Year 8, Issues 43-44, (April-July 1991).

73. Mohammad bin Ali Alavi Shajari, Fadhl al-Ziyarat al-Hussain (AS), Published by Ahmad Hosseini, Qom, 1982.

74. Ali ibn Musa (AS), the Eighth Imam, al-Fiqh al-Mansub lil'Imam al-Reza (AS), Mashhad, 1985.

75. Mohammad bin Hassan Fazel Hindi, Kashf al-Lithām 'an Qawā'id al-aḥkam, Vol. 2, Qom, 1997.

76. Farhad Mirza Qajar, Qamqām-i Zakhkhār wa Samṣām-i Battār, Tehran, 1957.

77. Mohammad bin Ya'qub Firouzabadi, Al-Qamus Al-Muhit, Beirut, 1987.

78. al-Nu‘mān ibn Muḥammad ibn Qazi Nu‘mān, Sharh al-Akhbar fi Fada'il al-A'imma al-Athar, Published by Mohammad Hosseini Jalali, Qom, 1988- 1991.

79. Abbas Qomi, Al-Fawa'id al-Radawiyya: Lives of Shiite Scholars, (?)Tehran, 1948.

80. Mohammad bin Mohammad Ibrahim Kalbasi, al-Istishfa' bi-Turbat al-Sharyfat al-Hussainia, Published by Hossein Gheib Gholami, Qom, 1991

81. Kulayni

82. Mohammad Baqir bin Mohammad Taqi Majlesi, Bihar al-Anwar, Beirut, 1983.

83. Mohammad Taqi bin Maqsoud Ali Majlesi, Rowdhat al-Mottaqin fi Sharh Man La Yahduruhu al-Faqih, Published by Mohammad Taqi Hossein Mousavi Kermani and Ali Panah Eshtehardi bin Maqsoud Ali Majlesi, Qom, 1985-1992.

84. Jafar bin Hassan Mohaqiq Hilli, Shara'i' al-Islam fi Masa'il al-Halal wa l-Haram, Published by Abdul Hussein Mohammad Ali Baqal, Qom, 1987.

85. Ibid, al-Motabar fi Sharah al-Mukhtasar, Vol. 1, Qom, 1985.

86. Ali bin Hussein Al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki, Rasayil Al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki, Published by Mohammad Hassoun, Vol. 2: Risalat al-Sujud ila al-Turbah al-Mushawiyah, Qom, 1988.

87. Ali bin Hussein Masoudi, Ithbat al-Wasiyya, Qom, 1996.

88. Mohammed bin Mohammad Mufid, Al'-Irshad fi Ma'rifat Hujaj Allah ila al-Ebad, Qom, 1992 (a).

89. Ibid, Kitab al-Mazar, Published by Mohammad Baqir Abtahi, Qom, 1992 (b).

90. Ibid, Massar al-Shia fi Mukhtasar Tawarikh al-Sharia, Published by Mehdi Najaf, Qom, 1992 (c).

91. Ibid, al-Muqana'a, Qom, 1989.

92. Ahmad bin Mohammad Moqaddas Ardebili, Majmae al-Fayidat wa al-Burhan fi Sharah Irshad al-Adhhan, Published by Mojtaba Iraqi, Ali Panah Eshtehardi and Hossein Yazdi Esfahani, Qom, Vol. 2, 1982, Vol. 11, 1993.

93. Mohammad Baqir Movahed Abtahi Esfahani, al'-Imam al-Hussain (e) fi Ahadyth al-Faryqyn min qabl al-Wiladat ela baad al-Shahada, Qom, 1993-1994;

94. Mohammad bin Ali Mousavi Ameli, Madark al-Ahkam fi Sharah Sharayie al'-Islam, Qom, 1989.

95. Mahmoud Maysami Iraqi, Dar al-Islam, Tehran, 1954.

96. Ahmad bin Ali Najashi, Fehrest 'Asma' Mosanafi al-Shiat al-Mashahir b-Rijal al-Najashi, published by Mousa Shubairi Zanjani, Qom, 1986.

97. Mohammad Hassan bin Baqir Najafi, Jawahir al-Kalam fi Sharh Shara'i' al-Islam, Beirut, 1981.

98. Ahmad bin Mohammad Mehdi Naraghi, Mustand al-Shiah fi Ahkam al-Shariah, Qom, Vol. 5, 1994, Vol. 15, 1997.

99. Published by Abdul Salam Muhammad Harun, Cairo, 1962, published offset in Qom, 1983.

100. Hussein ibn Mohammad Taqi Nouri, Dar al-Salam fi ma Yatealaq b-al-Roya w al-Manam, Qom, 1958,

101. Ibid, Mustadrak al-Wasāʾil wa Mustanbaṭ al-Masāʾil, Qom, 1986- 1987.

Source[edit | edit source]