Hadith is the term applied to report of the words and deeds of the prophet Muhammad and other early Muslims; considered an authoritative source of revelation, second only to the Quran (sometimes referred to as sayings of the Prophet). Hadith (pl. ahadith; hadith is used as a singular or a collective term in English) were collected, transmitted, and taught orally for two centuries after Muhammad's death and then began to be collected in written form and codified. They serve as a source of biographical material for Muhammad, contextualization of Quranic revelations, and Islamic law.
A list of authoritative transmitters is usually included in collections. Compilers were careful to record hadith exactly as received from recognized transmission specialists. The six most authoritative collections are those of al-Bukhari, Muslim, al-Tirmidhi, Abu Daud al-Sijistani, al-Nasai, and al-Qazwini. The collections of Malik ibn Anas and Ahmad ibn Hanbal are also important. Shi’is also use these collections but recognize only some Companions as valid authorities; they consider hadith reports from descendants of Muhammad through Ali and Fatima as fully authoritative. Other important Shi’i collections are those of al-Kulayni, al-Qummi, and al-Tusi.
The science of hadith criticism was developed to determine authenticity and preserve the corpus from alteration or fabrication. Chains of authority and transmission were verified as far back as possible, often to Muhammad himself. Chains of transmission were assessed by the number and credibility of the transmitters and the continuity of the chains (isnad). The nature of the text was also examined. Reports that were illogical, exaggerated, fantastic, or repulsive or that contradicted the Quran were considered suspect. Awareness of fabrication and false teaching has long existed but became a major issue in academic circles in the twentieth century due to early reliance on oral, rather than written, transmission. Traditionally, the body of authentic hadith reports is considered to embody the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad.
Hadith in Honor of Imam Hussain[edit | edit source]
1. Through the above referred chain of authorities from the same book, it is related from Sa’eed bin Jubayr, who relates from Ibn Abbas who says that one day I was seated in the presence of the Holy Prophet when Imam Hasan came. When the Prophet’s sight fell on him, he started weeping and then said,
“Come to me, come to me”
Prophet made him sit on his right thigh. After some time Imam Hussain came and the Prophet after looking at him started weeping. Then he made Imam Hussain sit on his left thigh. Then after some time Fatima came and the Prophet again started weeping and repeated as before and told her to sit facing him. Then when Imam Ali came he started weeping and repeating his words signaled him to sit on his right side. When the companions, who were sitting there saw this, they said, “O Prophet of Allah! You have not seen anyone among them except that you have wept, is there none among them whose sight could make you happy”? The Prophet replied,
“I swear by Him who has exalted me to Prophethood and has elevated me above the entire creation! No one on the entire earth is more dear to me than them. While my weeping is the result of the sufferings which shall befall them after my death. And I recollect the oppression which shall befall my son Hussain. It is as if I see him taking refuge under the shelter of my grave or the Sacred Sanctuary (Ka’bah), but no one will let him halt there. He will then go to the place which is the spot of his Martyrdom and grief and trials. While a group of men will assist him, who will be the leaders of all Martyrs among my people on the Day of Judgment. It is as if I see that arrows are shot at him and he has fallen down upon the earth of perdition from his steed. Then they will slaughter him like a sheep in an oppressive manner.”
Then he started weeping and wailing and all those near him too wept and their voices increased. Then he arose and said,
“O Allah, I complain to you about all those sufferings which my progeny will have to bear after my death.”
2. Through successive chain of narrators, Shaikh Abu Ja’far Al-Tusi, through his chain of transmitters, relates from Muhammad bin Muslim, who says that I have heard Imam Muhammad al-Baqir and Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq as saying that,
“Indeed the reward and compensation given by Allah for the martyrdom of Imam Hussain is that Imamate has been issued forth from his progeny, there is cure in (the earth of) his grave, the fulfillment of desires at the head of his grave, and from the time the pilgrim goes to visit his grave and returns back, no accounting will be taken (from him).”
Muhammad bin Muslim asked Imam Sadiq, “These rewards are (for the people) on account of Imam, but what about the reward for him.” Imam replied,
“Indeed Almighty Allah has united him with the Holy Prophet and Imam remains with the Prophet in his station and position.”
Then he recited the following verse of the Qur’an:
“And (as for) those who believe and their offspring follow them in faith, We will unite with them their offspring.”
Hadith on Merits of Mourning[edit | edit source]
1: Through successive chain of authorities, Shaikh Muhammad bin Nu’man al-Mufid relates from the Shaikh Qummi, from Ibn Waleed, from Saffar, from Ibn Abul Khattab, from Muhammad bin Isma’il, from Saleh bin Aqbah, from Abu Haroon Makfoof, who says that once I went to the presence of Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq. Imam told me to recite some couplets to which I started reciting.
Then Imam said,
“Not like this, recite as you do so for him (Imam Hussain) among yourselves and (standing) on the head of his grave.”
Then I recited, “While passing by the grave of Hussain tell his blessed bones…” Then Imam started weeping and hence I became silent. Imam Sadiq told me to continue and recite some more, thus I recited “O Farwa! Arise and weep and lament upon your Master Hussain, give an opportunity to weep over the corpse of Hussain.” Abu Haroon continues that Imam Sadiq wept bitterly and the women of his household too wept. When they became silent, Imam said,
“O Abu Haroon! If a person recites couplets about Imam Hussain and makes ten people weep by it then Paradise is reserved for him at that very moment.”
Then Imam started reducing the number of persons till he reached one and said,
“If a person recites couplets about Imam Hussain and makes a single person weep by it, then Paradise is reserved for him at that very moment.”
“Anyone who remembers Imam Hussain and weeps over him, shall have Paradise (as his reward).”
Shaikh Abbas Qummi says that the couplets recited by Abu Haroon were the ones composed by Sayyid al Himyari and which has been explicitly quoted by Shaikh Ibn Nima.
2: Through successive chain of authorities, Shaikh Saduq relates from his chain of authorities from Ibn Abbas that, Imam Ali asked the Holy Prophet, “Do you hold Aqeel dear to yourself”? The Prophet replied,
“Yes by Allah! I do hold him dear due to two reasons. The first being that I personally hold him dear, second being that Abu Talib loved him, and that his son (Muslim) will die befriending your son (Imam Hussain). And verily the eyes of the believers will weep (over his martyrdom) and the Angels close to Allah will send blessings upon him.”
The Prophet started weeping and tears fell upon his chest, then he said,
“I complain to Allah regarding that (pain and sufferings) which my Progeny will have to bear after my death.”
3: Through successive chain of authorities, the Chief of Traditionists Muhammad bin Ali bin Babawayh Qummi, through his authorities, quotes Imam Rida saying that,
“Whoever remembers our sorrows, and weeps over the oppressions which have been inflicted upon us, then on the day of Qiyamah he shall be on our status along with us. And the one who remembers our sorrows and thereby weeps and makes others weep, then his eyes shall not weep on the day when all eyes will be weeping. And the one who sits in such a gathering wherein our matters are discussed, his heart will not die on the day when all hearts shall perish.”
4: Through my connecting chain of transmitters reaching Abul Qasim Ja’far bin Qawlawayh Qummi, who relates with his chain of authorities, that Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq said,
5: Through the chain of transmitters reaching Shaikh al-Taifa Abu Ja’far Al-Tusi, who relates from Shaikh Mufid, who relates from Ibn Qawlawayh, from his father, from Sa’ad, from Barqi, from Sulayman bin Muslim Kindi, from Ibn Ghazawan, from Isa bin Abi Mansoor, from Aban bin Taghlib, who relates from Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq that he said,
“The sorrowful sigh over the oppression which have been inflicted upon us is glorification, and grief upon us is worship. And guarding our secrets carries the reward of struggle in the path of Allah.”
Then he retorted,
“Verily it is necessary that this tradition be written in gold.”
5: Through his chain of transmitters, the Jurist Shaikh Abul Qasim Ja’far bin Qawlawayh relates from Ibn Kharejah that Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq said that Imam Hussain says,
“I am the Martyr of grief and was martyred in captivity. And it is (incumbent) upon Allah to send the one who comes to visit my grave in sorrow, to reach contented back to his family.”
6: It has been related by Shaikh Al-Tusi, through successive chain of narrators from Abu ‘Amr Usman Daqqaq, from Ja’far bin Muhammad bin Malik, from Ahmad bin Yahya Azdi, from Makhool bin Ibraheem, from Rabi’ bin Munzir, from his father who quotes Imam Hussain bin Ali as saying that,
“There is no slave of Allah who sheds tears and his eyes become wet, except that Allah will put him in Paradise for a (lengthy) period.”
Ahmad bin Yahya Azdi says that one day I saw Imam Hussain in a dream and inquired from him regarding the validity of the tradition and the Imam replied that it was true.
6: Through my chain of transmitters connected to Shaikh Ali bin Ibrahim Qummi who relates from his father, from Ibn Mahboob, from Ala’, from Muhammad, from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir who said that, Imam Ali bin Hussain said,
“If a believer weeps over the martyrdom of Imam Hussain and tears flow from his eyes and fall on his cheeks, then Allah will make him reside in the palaces of Paradise where he shall abide for a lengthy period of time. And if tears flow from a believer’s eyes (in sorrow) and falls upon his cheeks for the oppression and tyranny which has been inflicted upon us by our enemies, then Allah will present him a seat in Paradise. And the believer who undergoes sufferings on our behalf and tears flow on his cheeks, then Allah will remove sorrow from his face, and on the day of Qiyamah will keep him away from His wrath and safeguard him against the fire (of hell).”
7: Through successive chain of transmitters reaching Ja’far bin Qawlawayh Qummi, who relates from Haroon bin Moosa Tal’ukbari, from Umar bin Abdul Aziz Kashshi, from Umar bin Sabah, from Ibn Isa, from Yahya bin Imran, from Muhammad bin Sinan, from Zayd bin Shiham, who says that, I was sitting in the presence of Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq with a group of people from Kufa, when Ja’far bin Affan entered. Imam welcomed him, signaled him to sit closer to him and then said, “O Ja’far” he said, “Here I am (at your service), may I be your ransom”!
“I have heard that you recite elegies for Imam Hussain, and that you recite it very well.”
He replied, “Yes, may I be your ransom.” He recited and the Imam started weeping, and all those who were present there too started weeping, until Imam’s beard was soaked in tears.
Then he said,
“O Ja’far! By Allah! The Angels close to Allah have descended here and heard your couplets for Imam Hussain and wept like us and even more. The Almighty Allah has reserved Paradise for you at this very moment and has forgiven your sins. O Ja’far! Do you want to hear something more”?
Ja’far replied in the affirmative and Imam continued,
“There is none who recites elegies in the praise of Imam Hussain and himself weeps besides making others weep, except that Allah will make Paradise obligatory for him and forgive him.”
8. Through successive chain of transmitters, Allamah Hilli relates from Khwaja Nasiruddin Muhammad bin Muhammad Al-Tusi, from Burhan Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Ali Hamadani Qazwini (who had settled in Ray), from Muntajabuddin Ali bin Ubaydullah bin Hasan Qummi, from his father, from his grandfather, from Shaikh Abil Fath Muhammad bin Ali bin Usman Karajaki, from Muhammad bin Abbas, with his chain of narrators from Hasan bin Mahboob, who relates with his chain of narrators from Sandul, from Darim bin Firqad who says that Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq said that,
“Recite Sura al Fajr in your obligatory (wajib) and supererogatory (Nafilah) morning Prayers, for it is particularly related to Imam Hussain. Have you not heard the words of Allah the Exalted in this Verse (Ayah):
O Tranquilled Soul at (complete) rest! Return to your Lord, well-pleased (with Him), (and) His being well-pleased with you.” (Surah al-Fajr, 89:27-30).
Here Imam Hussain is referred to as the “Tranquilled Soul, well-pleased (with Allah) and His being well-pleased with him.”
His companions from the family of the Prophet, are those who will be pleased with Allah on the day of Qiyamah and Allah too will be pleased with them. Verily this Sura is particularly connected to Imam Hussain, his followers (Shi’a), and the followers (Shi’a) of the Progeny of Prophet Muhammad. The one who continuously recites this Sura will remain with Imam Hussain in Paradise in his elevated station, and verily Allah is Predominant and All-Wise.”
Source[edit | edit source]
- Oxford Islamic Studies
- Shaykh 'Abbas Qummi , Nafasul Mahmum; Relating to the heart rending tragedy of Karbala'
References[edit | edit source]
- Surah at-Tur, 52:21