LoʼLoʼ va Marjān

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Lo' Lo' va Marjan
Lo Lo va Marjan.jpg
AuthorMuhaddis Noori
Original titleلولو و مرجان

The book LoʼLoʼ va Marjān (Farsi: لولو و مرجان) written by the Muhaddis Noori, Hussein bin Mohammad Taqi Nouri Tabarsi, is an attempt to correct the behavior of the preachers and professional narrators of the tragedies of Karbala and praisers of the Ahl al-Bayt on the pulpit.

About the Book[edit | edit source]

The book “LoʼLoʼ va Marjān" is the last work of Allama Nouri, which he started to write after the book Mustadrak al-Wasa'il, one of the most important sources of Shia hadith.[1] There are two manuscripts of Allameh Nouri from the book LoʼLoʼ va Marjān[2], which have been published many times over the past century, either directly from their text[3] or with research and rewriting.[4] One of the most authoritative of them, entitled “a view on the distortions of Ashura” (pearls and corals), is the version that was published by Ahmad Publications in 1379 with the research and correction of Mostafa Derayati.[5] In addition, the book entitled "The LoʼLoʼ va Marjān in the Etiquette of the Pulpit" has been translated into Arabic by Ibrahim Badawi.[6]

The preface of the book LoʼLoʼ VA Marjān shows the thought and thinking of the author of the book at the time of writing. Muhaddith Nouri describes his motivation for  writing Loloo and Marjan as follows: "Seyyed Mohammad Morteza Junpuri Hindi has repeatedly complained to me about the preachers who are greedy and fearless in telling lies and insist on spreading lies and fabrications and consider it permissible since it causes the believers to cry. Therefore, he ordered that a few words be written in this regard through sermons, which might lead to bring them back to themselves to stop doing this.»[7]

So, with such motive, Allama Noori wrote the above-mentioned book[8] in Dhi Qada 1319 AH.[9] Allama Noori, who was one of Imam Hussain's devotees[10], immediately after condemning the pulpit preachers, praised weeping over the mourning of Imam Hussain in the first lines of the introduction of “LoʼLoʼ VA Marjān”. This way he clarifies his position to distinguish right from wrong.

According to Allama Noori, in order to ascend the first and second steps of pulpit and sit on its last one and make the Shias cry, the preachers must have two attributes of sincerity and truth.[11] Therefore, according to Allama Noori, it is the responsibility of the Marajis and mujtahids to determine the individual qualification for being a pulpit preachers. The book of Pearls and Corals is based on the very extensive use of hadiths. For this reason, the arguments presented in it are mainly based on narrations and hadiths.

About the author[edit | edit source]

Hussain Ibn Mohammad Taqi Noori Tabarsi, also known as Muhaddis Noori and Allama Noori (1254-1320 AH / 1217-1281 SH) was born in the village of Yalo in Mazandaran. His father, Mirza Mohammad Taghi Noori, was one of the greatest scholars of the mid-Qajar period, and he is remembered for his dozens of books. Muhaddis Noori continued his education in Najaf, Karbala and al Kadhimiya. After staying in Samarra for some time, he returned to Najaf in 1314 AH and lived there for the rest of his life.[12] In addition to holding scientific and ijtihad positions, he also participated in social activities such as the tobacco boycott led by Mirza Shirazi.[13] Allama Noori, Muhaddith Noori and Khatam Al-Muhaddithin are the titles of the author of the book “LoʼLoʼ VA Marjān”.

Allama Noori is one of the greatest Shia scholars and narrators in the last two centuries (died in Najaf) who has written several books such as: Kashf al-astār an wajh al-ghā'ib an al-abṣār, Muntahā al-maqāl fī aḥwāl al-rijāl, Shakhe Tooba and Faṣl al-khiṭāb fī taḥrīf kitāb .

Among them, a large number have been published, such as: Taḥiyat al-zāʼir wa-bulqhat al-mujāwir[14], Nafas Ar-Raḥmān fī Faḍāʼil Salmān[15], and the most important one, Mustadrak al-Wasāʼil wa-mustanbaṭ al-masāʼil.[16]

In addition to his expertise in hadith and narration, Allama Noori was also an expert in the Biographical evaluation (Ilm al-Rijal) and bibliography and raised excellent students (such as: Muhaddith Qomi and Agha Bozorg Tehrani, Sheikh Fazlullah Nouri, Sheikh Ali Zahed Qomi, and Sheikh Mohammad Baqir Birjandi).[17]

Abstract of chapters[edit | edit source]

The main text of the book begins with a short text, which can be called an introduction, during which the author expresses his motivation for compiling the book. After that, the introduction of the book contains the general views of Allama Noori on how the pulpit preachers came into being and states the two main conditions for determining their competence. In this regard, the author believes the publication and reading of the book Roza al-Shuhada (Mullah Hussain Kashefi) in the mourning ceremonies of Imam Hussain, led to the emergence of a group called Roza Khan.[18] (One who mentions the sufferings of Imam Hussain and other members of the Prophet's family usually on pulpit.[19] Due to the expansion of the activities of roza Khans, Allama Noori makes their activities conditional on the existence of two attributes of sincerity and truth in them. According to the contents of the introduction, the book has been compiled in two general chapters on the attributes of sincerity and truth in the roza Khans.

The first chapter of the book focuses on expressing the authority of the pulpit preacher to sit on the first step or in other words, the attribute of sincerity in the preachers and mentioning the four corrupters that cause the lack of sincerity in worship.[20] The second chapter covers most of the book and in explaining the second attribute, which is truth, states five arguments as follows:[21]

First, praising the truth and greatness of it

Second, condemning lying and its corruption in this world and the hereafter

Third, mentioning the great sin of lying and slandering God and the Prophet and the Imams (P.B.U.TH)

Fourth, referring to the types of lies and its sharia rulings

Fifth, expressing the meaning of truthfulness in this position[22]

The end of the book, entitled Conclusion, is dedicated to condemning listening to false news.[23]

The value and the importance of the book[edit | edit source]

“LoʼLoʼ VA Marjān” have had an important impact on the emergence of deconstruction and anti-distortion in the narrations and Maqtals and tragedies of Ashura and the martyrdom of Imam Hussain,[24] more than a century ago. Allama Noori in addition to determining the status of the pulpit preachers in many cases, has also validated the narrations related to the events of Karbala and Ashura. [25]The author has enumerated the authorship of the book of "LoʼLoʼ VA Marjān” as fulfilling the sacred duty mentioned in the first part of a hadith from the Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) that “When deviation arises in my Uma, it is the duty of the scholars to reveal their knowledge. This alone shows the greatness of the book. Where "it is the duty of the ulema (means religious scholars), to tell the truth to the people openly, even if the people do not like it. They must fight against lies and disgrace the liars."[26]

Reciprocally, after the publication of the book "LoʼLoʼ VA Marjān” and in the following years, Allama Noori's comments were met many positive and negative reactions, and some of his views on the Karbala incident have been questioned and criticized by some other scholars, One of the most important ones is the issue of holding the first Arbaʽein Ceremony.[27] Vaez Khiyabani also mentions many objections to the book in Tehran and Tabriz, which even led to a murder.[28]

Sources[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Sehati Sardroodi, p. 236
  2. Samiie, p. 69
  3. For example: Hussain bin Mohammad Taqi Noori Tabarsi, LoʼLoʼ va Marjān, Farahani, 1364; Hussain Ibn Mohammad Taqi Noori Tabarsi, description of the duties of preachers (LoʼLoʼ VA Marjān in the duties of preachers and speakers). Tehran: Noor Mohabbat, 1392
  4. Including: Hussain bin Mohammad Taqi Noori Tabarsi, LoʼLoʼ VA Marjān. Research and rewriting by Jaber Rezvani. Qom: Bani Al-Zahra, 1388
  5. Samiie, pp. 69-70
  6. Esfandiari, p.104
  7. Noori Tabarsi, pp. 1-2
  8. Noori Tabarsi, pp. 2-3
  9. Esfandiari, p.102
  10. Sehati Sardroodi, pp. 236-237
  11. Noori Tabarsi, p.10
  12. Taleii, p 36
  13. Taleii, p 38
  14. Hussain Ibn Mohammad Taqi Noori Tabarsi, Taḥiyat al-zāʼir wa-bulqhat al-mujāwir, Adab-e-Ziyarat, Pilgrimage Etiquette, Forty-three points in the etiquette of pilgrimage of Infallibles, correction and research Tehran: Iroon, 1378
  15. Hussain Ibn Mohammad Taqi Noori Tabarsi, Nafas Ar-Raḥmān fī Faḍāʼil Salmān, Salman Farsi from Sepahan to Madain, translated by Seyed Hassan Eftekharzadeh, editor of Seyed Ali Razavi. Tehran: Afagh, 1395
  16. Hussain Ibn Mohammad Taqi Noori Tabarsi, Mustadrak al-Wasāʼil wa-mustanbaṭ al-masāʼil, research of Al-Bayt Institute, peace be upon them Qom: Al-Albayt Leahya Al-Torat Institute, second edition, 1368
  17. Taleii, p. 34
  18. Noori Tabarsi, p.8
  19. Noori Tabarsi, p.10
  20. Noori Tabarsi, pp.18-49
  21. Noori Tabarsi, pp. 49-203
  22. Noori Tabarsi, p. 49
  23. Esfandiari, p.103
  24. Sehati Sardroodi, pp. 239-244, also, Asgari, pp. 66-68
  25. Sehati Sardroodi, p. 246
  26. From the words of Morteza Motahhari in the book of Hossaini's epic, quoted by Samiei, p. 71 and also see: Jafarian, p. 24
  27. Ghazi Tabatabai, pp. 32-47 and other pages of the book
  28. Samiei, p.71