Difference between revisions of "Horr B. Yazid al-Riahi al-Yarbuʾi al-Tamimi"

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*[http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/horr-e-riahi Encyclopaedia Iranica]
 
*[http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/horr-e-riahi Encyclopaedia Iranica]
  
[[Category: Historical Character]]
 
 
[[Category: Karbala Martyrs]]
 
[[Category: Karbala Martyrs]]
 
[[Category: Battle of Karbala]]
 
[[Category: Battle of Karbala]]
 
[[Category: Hussain’s Followers]]
 
[[Category: Hussain’s Followers]]
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[[Category:Historical Characters]]

Latest revision as of 14:53, 27 July 2020

Horr B. Yazid al-Riahi al-Yarbuʾi al-Tamimi
Al-Hurr ibn Yazid(2).jpg
Native name
حر بن یزید ریاحی
Died61/680
(Martyred in the Event of Ashura)
Resting placeKarbala, Iraq
Known forBattle of Karbala

Horr B. Yazid al-Riahi al-Yarbuʾi al-Tamimi (d. 61/ 680), a leading tribesman in Kufa, who obeyed the orders of ʿUbayd-Allah b. Ziad by intercepting Hussain b. ʿAli and his party and leading them to Karbala, but later repented and fought on Hussain’s side which led to Horr’s martyrdom on the 10th of Muharram, Ashura. He is regarded as the symbol of hope in repentance which ensures his salvation.

Encounter with Imam Hussain[edit | edit source]

Horr's reputation by Kazem Chalipa, an Iranian contemporary artist.

The first meeting between Horr and Imam Hussain was not hostile. However, Horr pressed upon Hussain to change his course and follow him, even after the latter had informed him of the letters of support, he had received from the Kufans, towards whom his party was heading. Horr further obeyed Ibn-e Ziad’s subsequent order to force the rebels to stop in a deserted area. Thus, Hussain was led to the plain of Karbala, where he was encircled by the troops dispatched by Ibn-e Ziad under the command of ʿOmar b. Saʿd. Once the latter had rejected Hussain’s final proposals and decided to fight him on the morning of Ashura, 10 Muharram 61/10 October 680, Horr then repented and joined Hussain, who promised him God’s forgiveness.

Horr’s Martyrdom[edit | edit source]

2. Horr's body was buried by his tribe -Banu Asad- in a location far from Karbala, which was called Nawawis at the time and is called "Horr's village" nowadays.

According to most historians, many men from Hussain’s side were killed before Horr.[1] However, Horr’s own words when he rallied behind Hussain imply that he might have been the first to be killed at Karbala. Shiʿite tradition has retained this sequence of events, apparently derived from the work of Shaykh al-Mofid, who does not mention anyone having been killed before Horr, except Muslim b. ʿAwsaja.[2] In Turco-Persian maqtal-nama narratives of the drama of Karbala, which were used extensively by Kashefi for his Rawzat al-Shuhada (see Calmard, 1996, p. 155), after having killed many enemies, Horr became the first martyr of the battle. His martyrdom was followed by those of his brother, Moṣʿab b. Yazid, his son ʿAli, and the latter’s slave.[3]

Legacy[edit | edit source]

Horr’s courageous rallying behind Hussain and sacrificing himself to his cause are widely celebrated in Muharram rituals and related popular literature, such as marthia (elegies), nawha (dirges), and Ta'ziya (religious dramas). Many scenes dedicated to Horr are included in taʿzia collections, particularly in the Cerulli version.[4]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. e.g., Ṭabari, II, p. 350; tr. I. K. A. Howard, XIX, p. 144.
  2. tr. Howard, 1981, pp. 356 f.
  3. Kashefi, pp. 277 ff.; see Calmard, 1975, pp. 351 ff.
  4. Rossi and Bombaci, 1961, Index.

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • M. Ayoub, Redemptive Suffering in Islam, The Hague, 1978, Index.
  • J. Calmard, “Le Culte de l’Imam Hussain. Etude sur la commémoration du drame de Karbala dans l’Iran pré-safavide,” Ph.D. diss., University of Paris (Sorbonne), 1975.
  • Idem, “Shií Rituals and Power, II. The Consolidation of Safavid Shi’ism: Folklore and Popular Religion,” in C. Melville, ed., SafavidPersia, Cambridge, 1996, pp. 139-90.
  • P. J. Chelkowski, ed., Taʿziyeh: Ritual and Drama in Iran, New York, 1979, index. Ṣ. Homāyuni, Taʿzia dar Irān, Shiraz, 1368 Š./1989, Index.
  • Hussain Wāʿeẓ Kāšefi, Rawżat al-šohadāʾ, ed. M. Ramażāni, Tehran, 1341 Š./1962.
  • M. J. Kister, “al-Ḥurr b. Yazīd,” in EI2. Šayḵ al-Mofid, al-Eršād, tr. I. K. A. Howard, Kitāb al-Iršād: The Book of Guidance in the Livesof the Twelve Imams, London, 1981, Index.
  • Mostawfi, Šarḥ-e zendagāni. E. Rossi and A. Bombaci, Elenco di drammi religiosipersiani (fondo mss. Vaticani Cerulli), Vatican City, 1961, Index.
  • P. Ṣayyād, Matn-e taʿzia-e Ḥorr, mansub be-Moṣṭafā Kāšāni (Mir ʿAzā), Tehran, 1350 Š./1971.
  • Ṭabari, II, index; Ṭabari tr., XIX, index. L. Veccia Vaglieri, “al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib,” in EI².

Source[edit | edit source]