Ḥusayn ibn Alī
Al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī, (born January 626, Medina, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]—died Oct. 10, 680, Karbalāʾ, Iraq), Shīʿite Muslim hero, grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, and son of ʿAlī (the fourth Islamic caliph) and Fāṭima, daughter of Muhammad. He is revered by Shīʿite Muslims as the third imam (after ʿAlī and Ḥusayn’s older brother, Ḥasan). After the assassination of their father, ʿAlī, Ḥasan and Ḥusayn acquiesced to the rule of the first Umayyad caliph, Muʿāwiya, from whom they received pensions. Ḥusayn, however, refused to recognize the legitimacy of Muʿāwiya’s son and successor, Yazīd (April 680). Ḥusayn was then invited by the townsmen of Kūfah, a city with a Shīʿite majority, to come there and raise the standard of revolt against the Umayyads. After receiving some favourable indications, Ḥusayn set out for Kūfah with a small band of relatives and followers. According to traditional accounts, he met the poet al-Farazdaq on the way and was told that the hearts of the Iraqis were for him, but their swords were for the Umayyads. The governor of Iraq, on behalf of the caliph, sent 4,000 men to arrest Ḥusayn and his small band. They trapped Ḥusayn near the banks of the Euphrates River (October 680). When Ḥusayn refused to surrender, he and his escort were slain, and Ḥusayn’s head was sent to Yazīd in Damascus (now in Syria). In remembrance of the martyrdom of Ḥusayn, Shīʿite Muslims observe the first 10 days of Muḥarram (the date of the battle according to the Islamic calendar) as days of lamentation.
Facies and biography
In most traditional , historical and biographical (Arabic: عِلْمُ الرِّجال, translit. `Ilm al-Rijāl) sources, the resemblance of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī to the prophet has been expressed
In shita’s belief the main Quran script and assignment by god, are essential factors to designate an Imam. There are many quotes (Riwayats) available about Imam Husayn that the most famous one, is a quote (Riwayat) from prophet which confirmed that Hasan and Husain (two grandsons of Prophet Muhammad PBUH) are both Imam of Muslims. In addition, there are lots of sayings (Hadiths) in which prophet mentioned that Ali and his two sons, Hasan and Husayn, are Imams of Ummat (Muslim community) as well as nine following sons of Husayn. The other proof is the will of Hasan in which he emphasized that Husayn is the next successor of prophet and advised Muhammad abu Hanifa to obey him. Mofid is on it According to the above mentioned reasons, the imamate of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī is proven and definitive, although Hasan did not openly invite to his imamate due to Taqiyyah and the commitment to peace and withdrawal of the conflict but after The death of Mu'awiyah and the end of the conflict period, revealed his Imamat . As Mastering all the details and knowledge of Islam is a main characteristic of an Imam, Ali ask his son , Husayn(as well as he asked Hasan) , to give speech in front of Quraysh people so that they don’t blame him for lack of Islamic knowledge. Those praises which Husayn received from companions of prophet (sahaba) about his level of knowledge and ….are another reliable sources for him being an Imam. It is a witness to the words of the Companions about the scientific position of Imam Ḥusayn, and their demand him for Fatwa. To Some of his own words of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī about his Imamate and also to his hand came true Some miracles and theurgies which he cited as proof of imamate. It is said that sometime in the assignment of a part of theurgies or virtues or some verbs, is summarized between Ḥassan ibn ʿAlī and Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī. The martyrdom of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī has had remarkable effects on the behavior of Muslims and Shiites throughout history, and has inspired numerous struggles, revolutions and uprisings. The Shiites emphasize the cry and mourning of the martyrdom of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī especially in the month of Muharram. Finally, Ḥusayn's wife and children were captured and taken to Kūfah and from there to Damascus.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica
- refer to belazari 1996-2000, II, p 366, 453; Dolabi, p 104; Tabarani, III; p 95; Nattagbalah, p 11; mofid, II , p 27.
- Refer to qazi numan, I, p. 37; Ibn Babawayh, 1385-1386, I, p. 211; Khazaaz Razi, p. 117; mofid, I I , p. 30.;
- Refer to Ibn Babawayh, I , p257-258.
- I I, p 30-31.
- Refer to tabarsi, I, p 423-424.
- Refer to Ibn Babawayh, p 425.
- Refer to Ibn Babawayh, p 80, ibn assaker, XIV, p174.
- Refer to Ibn Babawayh, I, p 68; khazaz razi, p 230-234.
- Refer to Hassan tabarsi, I, p 423; safar qomi, p 291, Ibn Babawayh, I I, p 537; tousi, V , p 470; qotb ravandi, I, p 245-246; dalaelol imam, p 181-183, 188-19; ibn asaker, XIV , p 82; ibn shar ashoub, IV, p 57-59-60; majlesi, XLIV , p 185-186; hashem ibn soleyman bahrani, I I, p 83-230.